herbs 1 10052021


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Acacia senegalGum arabicA natural gum sourced from hardened sap of various species of acacia tree used as a binder and emulsifier.[citation needed]
Achillea millefoliumCommon yarrowPurported to be a diaphoreticastringent,[5] tonicstimulant and mild aromatic.
Actaea racemosaBlack cohoshHistorically used for arthritis and muscle pain, used more recently for conditions related to menopause and menstruation.[6]
Aesculus hippocastanumHorse chestnutIts seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers have been used medicinally for many centuries. The raw plant materials are toxic unless processed.[7]
Ageratina altissimaWhite snakerootRoot tea has been used to treat diarrheakidney stones, and fever. A root poultice can be used on snakebites. The smoke from burning leaves is used to revive unconscious people.[8][unreliable medical source?] The plant contains the toxin tremetol which causes milk sickness, a sometimes fatal condition.[9]
Alcea roseaCommon hollyhockBelieved to be an emollient and laxative. It is used to control inflammation, to stop bedwetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums.[10]
Alisma plantago-aquaticaWater-plantainUsed for the urinary tract.[11]
Allium sativumGarlicWidely used as an antibiotic[12][13][14][15] and, more recently, for treating cardiovascular disease[16][17] Garlic is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and has antidepressant-like effects on mice[18] so might be used as a herbal antidepressant or anxiolytic in humans.[19]
Aloe veraAloe veraLeaves are widely used to heal burnswounds and other skin ailments.[20][21]
Althaea officinalisMarsh-mallowUsed for over 2,000 years as both a food and a medicine.[4]
Amorphophallus konjacKonjacSignificant dietary source of glucomannan,[22][23] which is used in treating obesity,[24] constipation,[25] and reducing cholesterol.[26]
Anemone hepaticaCommon hepaticaHistorically used to treat liver diseases, it is still used in alternative medicine today. Other modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimplesbronchitis and gout.[27]
Angelica archangelicaGarden angelicaRoots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or tincture for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, nervous system, and also against fever, infections, and flu.[28]
Angelica sinensisDong quaiUsed for thousands of years in Asia, primarily in women’s health.[29]
Apium graveolensCelerySeed is used only occasionally in tradition medicine. Modern usage is primarily as a diuretic.[30]
Arctium lappaBurdockUsed traditionally as a diuretic and to lower blood sugar[31] and, in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for sore throat and symptoms of the common cold.[32]
Arnica montanaArnicaUsed as an anti-inflammatory[33] and for osteoarthritis.[34] The US Food and Drug Administration has classified Arnica montana as an unsafe herb because of its toxicity.[35] It should not be taken orally or applied to broken skin where absorption can occur.[35]
Astragalus propinquusAstragalusLong been used in traditional Chinese medicine to strengthen the immune system, and is used in modern China to treat hepatitis and as an adjunctive therapy in cancer.[36]
Atropa belladonnaBelladonnaAlthough toxic, was used historically in Italy by women to enlarge their pupils, as well as a sedative, among other uses. The name itself means “beautiful woman” in Italian.[37]
Azadirachta indicaNeemUsed in India to treat worms, malariarheumatism and skin infections among many other things. Its many uses have led to neem being called “the village dispensary” in India.[38]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Bellis perennisDaisyFlowers have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea (or the leaves as a salad) for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract.[39]
Berberis vulgarisBarberryLong history of medicinal use, dating back to the Middle Ages particularly among Native Americans. Uses have included skin ailmentsscurvy and gastro-intestinal ailments.[40]
Borago officinalisBorageUsed in hyperactive gastrointestinalrespiratory and cardiovascular disorders,[41] such as gastrointestinal (coliccrampsdiarrhea), airways (asthmabronchitis), cardiovascular, (cardiotonicantihypertensive and blood purifier), urinary (diuretic and kidney/bladder disorders).[42]
Broussonetia kurziiSalaeKnown as Salae in Thailand where this species is valued as a medicinal plant.[43]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Calendula officinalisMarigoldAlso named calendula, has a long history of use in treating wounds and soothing skin.[44]
CannabisHemp, Cannabis, Marijuana, Indian hemp, GanjaUsed worldwide since ancient times as treatment for various conditions and ailments including pain, inflammation, gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, muscle relaxation, anxiety, Alzheimer’s and dementiaADHDautism, cancer, cerebral palsy, recurring headaches, Crohn’s disease, depression, epilepsy, glaucoma, insomnia, and neuropathy among others.[45]
Capsicum annuumCayenneType of chili that has been used as both food and medicine for thousands of years. Uses have included reducing pain and swelling, lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels and fighting viruses and harmful bacteria, due to high levels of Vitamin C.[46][47][48]
Capsicum frutescensChiliIts active ingredient, capsaicine, is the basic of commercial pain-relief ointments in Western medicine. The low incidence of heart attack in Thais may be related to capsaicine’s fibronolytic action (dissolving blood clots).[49]
Carica papayaPapayaUsed for treating wounds and stomach troubles.[50]
Cassia occidentalisCoffee sennaUsed in a wide variety of roles in traditional medicine, including in particular as a broad-spectrum internal and external antimicrobial, for liver disorders, for intestinal worms and other parasites and as an immune-system stimulant.[51][52]
Catha edulisKhatMild stimulant used for thousands of years in Yemen, and is banned today in many countries. Contains the amphetamine-like substance cathinone.[citation needed]
Cayaponia espelinaSão Caetano melonIt is a diuretic and aid in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis.[53]
Centaurea cyanusCornflowerIn herbalism, a decoction of cornflower is effective in treating conjunctivitis and as a wash for tired eyes.[54]
Chrysopogon zizanioidesVetiverUsed for skin care.[55]
Cinchona spec.CinchonaGenus of about 38 species of trees whose bark is a source of alkaloids, including quinine. Its use as a febrifuge was first popularized in the 17th century by Peruvian Jesuits.[56]
Citrus × aurantiumBitter orangeUsed in traditional Chinese medicine and by indigenous peoples of the Amazon for nauseaindigestion and constipation.[57]
Citrus limonLemonAlong with other citruses, it has a long history of use in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine.[58] In contemporary use, honey and lemon is common for treating coughs and sore throat.
Citrus trifoliataTrifoliate orange, bitter orangeFruits of Citrus trifoliata are widely used in Oriental medicine as a treatment for allergic inflammation.[59]
Cissampelos pareiraVelvetleafUsed for a wide variety of conditions.[60]
Cnicus benedictusBlessed thistleUsed during the Middle Ages to treat bubonic plague. In modern times, herbal teas made from blessed thistle are used for loss of appetiteindigestion and other purposes.[61]
Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus laevigataHawthornFruit has been used for centuries for heart disease. Other uses include digestive and kidney related problems.[62]
Curcuma longaTurmericSpice that lends its distinctive yellow color to Indian curries, has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to aid digestion and liver function, relieve arthritis pain, and regulate menstruation.[63]
Cypripedium parviflorumYellow lady’s slipperThe Cypripedium species have been used in native remedies for dermatitis, tooth aches, anxiety, headaches, as an antispasmodic, stimulant and sedative. However, the preferred species for use are Cyp. parviflorum and Cyp.acaule, used as topical applications or tea.[64][65]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Digitalis lanataDigitalis or foxgloveIt came into use in treating cardiac disease in late 18th century England in spite of its high toxicity.a Its use has been almost entirely replaced by the pharmaceutical derivative Digoxin, which has a shorter half-life in the body, and whose toxicity is therefore more easily managed.[66] Digoxin is used as an antiarrhythmic agent and inotrope.[67]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Echinacea purpureaPurple coneflowerThis plant and other species of Echinacea have been used for at least 400 years by Native Americans to treat infections and wounds, and as a general “cure-all” (panacea). It is currently used for symptoms associated with cold and flu.[68][69]
Equisetum arvenseHorsetailDates back to ancient Roman and Greek medicine, when it was used to stop bleeding, heal ulcers and wounds, and treat tuberculosis and kidney problems.[70]
Eriodictyon crassifoliumYerba SantaUsed by the Chumash people to keep airways open for proper breathing.[71] The US Forest Service profile[72] for Eriodictyon crassifolium provides information on species distribution; taxonomic relationships; ecological and evolutionary considerations for restoration; growth form and distinguishing traits; habitat characteristics; projected future suitable habitat; growth, reproduction and dispersal; biological interactions; ecological genetics; seed characteristics, germination requirements and processing; and plant uses including agriculture, restoration, and traditional products, plus an extensive bibliography. It is part of Riverside-Corona Resource Conservation District’s resource materials collection on native plant recommendations for southern California ecoregions.
Erythroxylum cocaCocaUsed as coca tea or chewed, traditionally as a stimulant to overcome fatigue, hunger, thirst, and altitude sickness.[73] Also used as an anesthetic and analgesic.[74]
Eschscholzia californicaCalifornian poppyUsed as an herbal remedy: an aqueous extract of the plant has sedative and anxiolytic actions.[75]
Eucalyptus globulusEucalyptusLeaves were widely used in traditional medicine as a febrifuge.[76] Eucalyptus oil is commonly used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications, as well as for an analgesic.[77]
Euonymus atropurpureusWahooPlant is a purgative and might affect the heart.[78]
Euphorbia hirtaAsthma-plantUsed traditionally in Asia to treat bronchitic asthma and laryngeal spasm.[79][80] It is used in the Philippines for dengue fever.[81]
EuphrasiaEyebrightUsed for eye problems, mental depression, oxygenation and radiation poisoning.[82]
Euterpe oleraceaAçaiAlthough açai berries are a longstanding food source for indigenous people of the Amazon, there is no evidence that they have historically served a medicinal, as opposed to nutritional role. In spite of their recent popularity in the United States as a dietary supplement, there is currently no evidence for their effectiveness for any health-related purpose.[83]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ferula assa-foetidaAsafoetidaMight be useful for IBS, high cholesterol, and breathing problems.[84]
Frangula alnusAlder buckthornBark (and to a lesser extent the fruit) has been used as a laxative, due to its 3 – 7% anthraquinone content. Bark for medicinal use is dried and stored for a year before use, as fresh bark is violently purgative; even dried bark can be dangerous if taken in excess.[85]
Fumaria officinalisFumitoryTraditionally thought to be good for the eyes and to remove skin blemishes. In modern times herbalists use it to treat skin diseases and conjunctivitis, as well as to cleanse the kidneys. However, Howard (1987) warns that fumitory is poisonous and should only be used under the direction of a medical herbalist.[86]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
GalanthusSnowdropIt contains an active substance called galantamine, which is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Galantamine (or galanthamine) can be helpful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, though it is not a cure.[87]
Geranium robertianumRobert geraniumIn traditional herbalism, it was used as a remedy for toothache and nosebleeds[88] and as a vulnerary (used for or useful in healing wounds).[89]
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgoThe leaf extract has been used to treat asthmabronchitisfatigueAlzheimer’s and tinnitus.[90]
Glechoma hederaceaGround-ivyIt has been used as a “lung herb”.[91] Other traditional uses include as an expectorant, astringent, and to treat bronchitis.[92] The essential oil of the plant has been used for centuries as a general tonic for colds and coughs, and to relieve congestion of the mucous membranes.
Glycyrrhiza glabraLicorice rootIt has a long history of medicinal usage in Eastern and Western medicine. Uses include stomach ulcersbronchitis, and sore throat, as well as infections caused by viruses, such as hepatitis.[93]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Hamamelis virginianaCommon witch-hazelIt produces a specific kind of tannins called hamamelitannins. One of those substances displays a specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells.[94]
Hippophae rhamnoidesSea buckthornThe leaves are used as herbal medicine to alleviate cough and fever, pain, and general gastrointestinal disorders as well as to cure dermatologic disorders. Similarly, the fruit juice and oils can be used in the treatment of liver disease, gastrointestinal disorders, chronic wounds or other dermatological disorders.[95]
Hoodia gordoniiHoodiaThe plant is traditionally used by Kalahari San (Bushmen) to reduce hunger and thirst. It is currently marketed as an appetite suppressant.[96]
Hydrastis canadensisGoldensealIt was used traditionally by Native Americans to treat skin diseases, ulcers, and gonorrhea. More recently, the herb has been used to treat the respiratory tract and a number of other infections.[97]
Hypericum perforatumSt. John’s wortWidely used within herbalism for depression. Evaluated for use as an antidepressant, but with ambiguous results.[98][99][100]
Hyssopus officinalisHyssopIt is used for digestive and intestinal problems including liver and gallbladder conditions, intestinal pain, intestinal gas, colic, and loss of appetite. It is also used for respiratory problems including coughs, the common cold, respiratory infections, sore throat, and asthma.[101]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ilex paraguariensisYerba mateIt has been claimed to have various effects on human health and these effects have been attributed to the high quantity of polyphenols found in mate tea.[102] Mate contains compounds that act as an appetite suppressant,[103] increases mental energy and focus,[104] and improves mood.[105] Yerba mate also contains elements such as potassiummagnesium, and manganese.[106]
Illicium verumStar aniseIt is the major source of the chemical compound shikimic acid, a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu).[107]
Inula heleniumElecampaneIt is used in herbal medicine as an expectorant and for water retention.[108]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Jasminum officinaleJasmineIt is used in dermatology as either an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory agent.[109]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Knautia arvensisField scabiousThe whole plant is astringent and mildly diuretic. An infusion is used internally as a blood purifier and externally for treating cuts, burns and bruises.[110]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Larrea tridentataChaparralThe leaves and twigs are used by Native Americans to make a herbal tea used for a variety of conditions, including arthritiscancer and a number of others. Subsequent studies have been extremely variable, at best. Chaparral has also been shown to have high liver toxicity, and has led to kidney failure, and is not recommended for any use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or American Cancer Society.[111][112]
Laurus nobilisBay laurelAqueous extracts of bay laurel can be used as astringents and even as a reasonable salve for open wounds.[113] In massage therapy, the essential oil of bay laurel is reputed to alleviate arthritis and rheumatism, while in aromatherapy it is used to treat earaches and high blood pressure.[114]
Lavandula angustifoliaLavenderIt was traditionally used as an antiseptic and for mental health purposes. It was also used in ancient Egypt in mummifying bodies. There is little scientific evidence that lavender is effective for most mental health uses.[115]
Lawsonia inermisHennaThe plants exhibits potential antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract of the root has antibacterial activity due to the presence of flavonoid and alkaloids. Henna is also thought to show anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects in experimental animals.[116]
Leucojum aestivumSummer snowflakeIt is known to contain Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine in pharmaceutical format). It is used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and various other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin.[citation needed]
Linum usitatissimumFlaxseedThe plant is most commonly used as a laxativeFlaxseed oil is used for different conditions, including arthritis.[117]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Magnolia officinalisMagnolia-barkThe bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds. Preclinical studies have evaluated their various potential applications including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties.[118]
Malva sylvestrisMallowThe seeds are used internally in a decoction or herbal tea[119] as a demulcent and diuretic, and the leaves made into poultices as an emollient for external applications.
Matricaria recutita and Anthemis nobilisChamomileIt has been used over thousands of years for a variety of conditions, including sleeplessness, anxiety, and gastrointestinal conditions such as upset stomach, gas, and diarrhea.[120]
Medicago sativaAlfalfaThe leaves are used to lower cholesterol, as well as forum kidney and urinary tract ailments, although there is insufficient scientific evidence for its efficacy.[121]
Melaleuca alternifoliaTea tree oilIt has been used medicinally for centuries by Australian aboriginal people. Modern usage is primarily as an antibacterial or antifungal agent.[122]
Melissa officinalisLemon balmIt is used as a sleep aid and digestive aid.[123]
Mentha x piperitaPeppermintIts oil, from a cross between water mint and spearmint, has a history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, including nauseaindigestion, and symptoms of the common cold.[124]
Mitragyna speciosaKratomKratom is known to prevent or delay withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent individual, and it is often used to mitigate cravings thereafter. It can also be used for other medicinal purposes. Kratom has been traditionally used in regions such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.[125]
Momordica charantiaBitter melonThe plant is used as an agent to reduce the blood glucose level.[126]
Morinda citrifoliaNoniIt has a history of use as for joint pain and skin conditions.[127]
Moringa oleiferaDrumstick treeIt is used for food and traditional medicine. It is undergoing preliminary research to investigate potential properties of its nutrients and phytochemicals.[citation needed]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Nasturtium officinaleWatercressIt may be diuretic and antibacterial.[128]
Nelumbo nuciferaLotusSacred lotus has been the subject of a number of in-vitro and animal studies, exploring its pharmacologic effects, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-infective, hyperlipidemic, and psychopharmacologic activity[129] although clinical trials are lacking.
Nigella sativaNigella, black-caraway, black-cumin, and kalonjiIt has efficacy as a therapy, mainly using the seed oil extract, volatile oil, and isolated constituent thymoquinone.[130] One meta-analysis of clinical trials concluded that N. sativa has a short-term benefit on lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure.[131]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ocimum tenuiflorumTulsi or holy basilIt is used for a variety of purposes in traditional medicine; tulsi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf or mixed with ghee. Essential oil extracted from Karpoora tulasi is mostly used for medicinal purposes and in herbal cosmetics.[132]
OenotheraEvening primroseIts oil has been used since the 1930s for eczema, and more recently as an anti-inflammatory.[133]
Origanum vulgareOreganoUsed as an abortifacient in folk medicine in some parts of Bolivia and other northwestern South American countries, though no evidence of efficacy exists in Western medicine. Hippocrates used oregano as an antiseptic, as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece as a palliative for sore throat. Evidence of efficacy in this matter is lacking.[citation needed]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Panax spec.GinsengUsed medicinally, in particular in Asia, for over 2,000 years, and is widely used in modern society.[134]
Papaver somniferumOpium poppyThe plant is the plant source of morphine, used for pain relief. Morphine made from the refined and modified sap is used for pain control in terminally ill patients. Dried sap was used as a traditional medicine until the 19th century.[citation needed]
PassifloraPassion flowerThought to have anti-depressant properties. Unknown MOA. Used in traditional medicine to aid with sleep or depression.[citation needed]
Peganum harmalaSyrian Rue (aka Harmal)Can be used as an antidepressant, but carries significant risk. Used in traditional shamanistic rites in the amazon, and is a component of Ayahuasca, Caapi or Yajé (which is actually usually Banisteriopsis caapi but has the same active alkaloids).[citation needed]
Pelargonium sidoidesUmckaloabo, or South African GeraniumIt is used in treating acute bronchitis.[135]
Piper methysticumKavaThe plant has been used for centuries in the South Pacific to make a ceremonial drink with sedative and anesthetic properties. It is used as a soporific, as well as for asthma and urinary tract infection.[136]
Piscidia erythrina / Piscidia piscipulaJamaica dogwoodThe plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety, despite serious safety concerns.[137] A 2006 study suggested medicinal potential.[138]
Plantago lanceolataPlantainIt is used frequently in herbal teas and other herbal remedies.[139] A tea from the leaves is used as a highly effective cough medicine. In the traditional Austrian medicine Plantago lanceolata leaves have been used internally (as syrup or tea) or externally (fresh leaves) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, insect bites, and infections.[140]
Platycodon grandiflorusPlatycodon, balloon flowerThe extracts and purified platycoside compounds (saponins) from the roots may exhibit neuroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, improved insulin resistance, and cholesterol-lowering properties.[141]
Polemonium reptansAbscess rootIt is used to reduce fever, inflammation, and cough.[142]
Psidium guajavaGuavaIt has a rich history of use in traditional medicine. It is traditionally used to treat diarrhea; however, evidence of its effectiveness is very limited.[143][144]
Ptelea trifoliataWafer AshThe root bark is used for the digestive system.[145] Also known as hoptree.
Pulmonaria officinalisLungwortUsed since the Middle Ages to treat and/or heal various ailments of the lungs and chest.[citation needed]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Quassia amaraAmargo, bitter-woodA 2012 study found a topical gel with 4% Quassia extract to be a safe and effective cure of rosacea.[146]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Reichardia tingitanaFalse sowthistleUses in folk medicine have been recorded in the Middle East, its leaves being used to treat ailments such as constipation, colic and inflamed eyes.[147]
Rosa majalisCinnamon roseIt yields edible hip fruits rich in vitamin C, which are used in medicine[148] and to produce rose hip syrup.
Rosmarinus officinalisRosemaryIt has been used medicinally from ancient times.[citation needed]
Ruellia tuberosaMinnieroot, fever root, snapdragon rootIn folk medicine and Ayurvedic medicine it has been used as a diureticanti-diabeticantipyreticanalgesicantihypertensivegastroprotective, and to treat gonorrhea.[149]
Rumex crispusCurly dock or yellow dockIn Western herbalism the root is often used for treating anemia, due to its high level of iron.[150] The plant will help with skin conditions if taken internally or applied externally to things like itching, scrofula, and sores. It is also used for respiratory conditions, specifically those with a tickling cough that is worse when exposed to cold air. It mentions also passing pains, excessive itching, and that it helps enlarged lymphs.[151]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Salix albaWhite willowPlant source of salicylic acid, white willow is like the chemical known as aspirin, although more likely to cause stomach upset as a side effect than aspirin itself which can cause the lining in your stomach to be destroyed. Used from ancient times for the same uses as aspirin.[152]
Salvia officinalisSageShown to improve cognitive function in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.[153][154]
Sambucus nigraElderberryThe berries and leaves have traditionally been used to treat painswellinginfectionscoughs, and skin conditions and, more recently, flucommon coldfeversconstipation, and sinus infections.[155]
Santalum albumIndian sandalwoodSandalwood oil has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common coldsbronchitisskin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies.[156]
Santolina chamaecyparissusCotton lavenderMost commonly, the flowers and leaves are made into a decoction used to expel intestinal parasites.[citation needed]
Saraca indicaAshoka treeThe plant is used in Ayurvedic traditions to treat gynecological disorders. The bark is also used to combat oedema or swelling.[157]
Satureja hortensisSummer savoryIts extracts show antibacterial and antifungal effects on several species including some of the antibiotic resistant strains.[158][159][160]
Sceletium tortuosumKannaAfrican treatment for depression. Suggested to be an SSRI or have similar effects, but unknown mechanism of activity.[citation needed]
Senna auriculataAvaram sennaThe root is used in decoctions against feversdiabetes, diseases of urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flowers and flower buds are used as a substitute for tea in case of diabetes patients. The powdered seed is also applied to the eye, in case of chronic purulent conjunctivitis.[citation needed]
Sesuvium portulacastrumShoreline purslaneThe plant extract showed antibacterial and anticandidal activities and moderate antifungal activity.[161]
Silybum marianumMilk thistleIt has been used for thousands of years for a variety of medicinal purposes, in particular liver problems.[162]
Stachytarpheta cayennensisBlue snakeweedExtracts of the plant are used to ease the symptoms of malaria. The boiled juice or a tea made from the leaves or the whole plant is taken to relieve fever and other symptoms. It is also used for dysenterypain, and liver disorders.[163] A tea of the leaves is taken to help control diabetes in Peru and other areas.[164] Laboratory tests indicate that the plant has anti-inflammatory properties.[165]
Stellaria mediaCommon chickweedIt has been used as a remedy to treat itchy skin conditions and pulmonary diseases.[166] 17th century herbalist John Gerard recommended it as a remedy for mange. Modern herbalists prescribe it for iron-deficiency anemia (for its high iron content), as well as for skin diseasesbronchitisrheumatic pains, arthritis and period pain.[167]
Strobilanthes callosusKarvyThe plant is anti-inflammatoryantimicrobial,[168] and anti-rheumatic.[169]
Symphytum officinaleComfreyIt has been used as a vulnerary and to reduce inflammation.[170] It was also used internally in the past, for stomach and other ailments, but its toxicity has led a number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Australia, and the United Kingdom, to severely restrict or ban the use of comfrey.[171]
Syzygium aromaticumCloveThe plant is used for upset stomach and as an expectorant, among other purposes. The oil is used topically to treat toothache.[172]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Tanacetum partheniumFeverfewThe plant has been used for centuries for feversheadachesstomach achestoothachesinsect bites and other conditions.[173]
Taraxacum officinaleDandelionIt was most commonly used historically to treat liver diseaseskidney diseases, and spleen problems.[174]
Teucrium scordiumWater germanderIt has been used for asthma, diarrhea, fever, intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids, and wounds.[175]
Thymus vulgarisThymeThe plant is used to treat bronchitis and cough. It serves as an antispasmodic and expectorant in this role. It has also been used in many other medicinal roles in Asian and Ayurvedic medicine, although it has not been shown to be effective in non-respiratory medicinal roles.[176]
Tilia cordataSmall-leaved lindenIn the countries of Central, Southern and Western Europe, linden flowers are a traditional herbal remedy made into an herbal tea called tisane.[177]
Tradescantia zebrinaInchplantIt is used in southeast Mexico in the region of Tabasco as a cold herbal tea, which is named Matali.[178] Skin irritation may result from repeated contact with or prolonged handling of the plant, particularly from the clear, watery sap (a characteristic unique to T. zebrina as compared with other types).
Trema orientalisCharcoal-treeThe leaves and the bark are used to treat coughssore throatsasthmabronchitisgonorrheayellow fevertoothache, and as an antidote to general poisoning.[179]
Trifolium pratenseRed cloverThe plant is an ingredient in some recipes for essiac tea. Research has found no benefit for any human health conditions.[180]
Trigonella foenum-graecumFenugreekIt has long been used to treat symptoms of menopause, and digestive ailments. More recently, it has been used to treat diabetesloss of appetite and other conditions.[181]
Triticum aestivumWheatgrassIt may contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.[182]
Turnera subulataWhite buttercupIt is used for skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory ailments.[citation needed]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Uncaria tomentosaCat’s clawIt has a long history of use in South America to prevent and treat disease.[183]
Urtica dioicaCommon nettle, stinging nettleIt has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea or fresh leaves) to treat disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, locomotor system, skin, cardiovascular system, hemorrhage, influenza, rheumatism, and gout.[184]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Vaccinium spec.BlueberriesThey are of current medical interest as an antioxidant[185][186] and for urinary tract ailments.[187]
Vaccinium macrocarponCranberryIt was used historically as a vulnerary and for urinary disorders, diarrheadiabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems. Modern usage has concentrated on urinary tract related problems.[188]
Vaccinium myrtillusBilberryIt is used to treat diarrheascurvy, and other conditions.[189]
Valeriana officinalisValerianIt has been used since at least ancient Greece and Rome for sleep disorders and anxiety.[190]
Verbascum thapsusCommon mulleinIt contains glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide and potential anti-tumoral action. These compounds are concentrated in the flowers.[191]
Verbena officinalisVerbenaIt is used for sore throats and respiratory tract diseases.[192]
Vernonia amygdalinaBitter leafThe plant is used by both primates and indigenous peoples in Africa to treat intestinal ailments such as dysentery.[193][194]
Veronica officinalisVeronicaThe plant is used for sinus and ear infections.[195]
Viburnum tinusLaurustinusV. tinus has medicinal properties. The active ingredients are viburnin (a substance or more probably a mixture of compounds) and tannins. Tannins can cause stomach upset. The leaves when infused have antipyretic properties. The fruits have been used as purgatives against constipation. The tincture has been used lately in herbal medicine as a remedy for depression. The plant also contains iridoid glucosides.[196]
Viola tricolorWild pansyIt is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug development due to their size and structure giving rise to high stability. Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic.[197] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers.[198][197]
Viscum albumEuropean mistletoeIt has been used to treat seizures, headaches, and other conditions.[199]
Vitex agnus-castusChasteberryIt has been used for over thousands of years for menstrual problems, and to stimulate lactation.[200]
Vitis viniferaGrapeThe leaves and fruit have been used medicinally since the ancient Greeks.[201]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Withania somniferaAshwagandhaThe plant’s long, brown, tuberous roots are used in traditional medicine. In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves are applied externally to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers.[202]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Xanthoparmelia scabrosaSexy footpath lichenIt is a lichen used for sexual dysfunction.[203]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Youngia japonicaJapanese hawkweedThe plant is antitussive and febrifuge. It is also used in the treatment of boils and snakebites.[204]


Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Zingiber officinaleGingerGinger is effective for the relief of nausea.[205][206]



See also[edit]


  • ^ Digitalis use in the United States is controlled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can only be prescribed by a physician. Misuse can cause death.
  • This encyclopedia is not a substitute for medical advice nor a complete description of these herbs, their dangers (up to and including death), and their (in)compatibility with alcohol or other drugs.


  1. Jump up to:a b Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, et al. (August 2006). “Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future”The Medical Journal of Australia185 (S4): S1–S24. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2006.tb00548.xPMID 17022438S2CID 9769230.
  2. Jump up to:a b Lai PK, Roy J (June 2004). “Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices”. Current Medicinal Chemistry11 (11): 1451–60. doi:10.2174/0929867043365107PMID 15180577.
  3. Jump up to:a b Meskin MS (2002). Phytochemicals in Nutrition and Health. CRC Press. p. 123. ISBN 9781587160837.
  4. Jump up to:a b Haubrich WS (2003). “officina”. Medical meanings: a glossary of word origins. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-930513-49-5.
  5. ^ Hutchens AR (1973). Indian Herbology of North America. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-87773-639-4.
  6. ^ “Black cohosh”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  7. ^ “Horse chestnut”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  8. ^ “Medicinal Plants-White Snakeroot”. Bio.brandeis.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-10-23. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  9. ^ “Milk Sickness”National Park Service. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  10. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987) p.155
  11. ^ “Water Plantain”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  12. ^ Johnston N (April 2002). “Garlic: a natural antibiotic”Modern Drug Discovery5 (4). Archived from the original on 2007-08-17.
  13. ^ Cai Y, Wang R, Pei F, Liang BB (May 2007). “Antibacterial activity of allicin alone and in combination with beta-lactams against Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa”The Journal of Antibiotics60 (5): 335–8. doi:10.1038/ja.2007.45PMID 17551215.
  14. ^ Eja ME, Asikong BE, Abriba C, Arikpo GE, Anwan EE, Enyi-Idoh KH (March 2007). “A comparative assessment of the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and antibiotics on diarrheagenic organisms”. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health38 (2): 343–8. PMID 17539285.
  15. ^ Tessema B, Mulu A, Kassu A, Yismaw G (October 2006). “An in vitro assessment of the antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on bacterial isolates from wound infections”. Ethiopian Medical Journal44 (4): 385–9. PMID 17370439.
  16. ^ Rahman K, Lowe GM (March 2006). “Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review”The Journal of Nutrition136 (3 Suppl): 736S–740S. doi:10.1093/jn/136.3.736SPMID 16484553.
  17. ^ Gardner CD, Lawson LD, Block E, Chatterjee LM, Kiazand A, Balise RR, Kraemer HC (February 2007). “Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial”Archives of Internal Medicine167 (4): 346–53. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.4.346PMID 17325296.
  18. ^ Dhingra D, Kumar V (August 2008). “Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice”Indian Journal of Pharmacology40 (4): 175–9. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.43165PMC 2792615PMID 20040952.
  19. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  20. ^ “Kathalai”. Tamilnadu.com. 7 February 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  21. ^ “Aloe Vera”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  22. ^ Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Miles CW, Fahey GC (April 1997). “Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans”The Journal of Nutrition127 (4): 579–86. doi:10.1093/jn/127.4.579PMID 9109608.
  23. ^ Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, Vidgen E, et al. (June 1999). “Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial”. Diabetes Care22 (6): 913–9. doi:10.2337/diacare.22.6.913PMID 10372241.
  24. ^ Keithley J, Swanson B (2005). “Glucomannan and obesity: a critical review”. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine11 (6): 30–4. PMID 16320857.
  25. ^ Marzio L, Del Bianco R, Donne MD, Pieramico O, Cuccurullo F (August 1989). “Mouth-to-cecum transit time in patients affected by chronic constipation: effect of glucomannan”. The American Journal of Gastroenterology84 (8): 888–91. PMID 2547312.
  26. ^ Chen HL, Sheu WH, Tai TS, Liaw YP, Chen YC (February 2003). “Konjac supplement alleviated hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects–a randomized double-blind trial”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition22 (1): 36–42. doi:10.1080/07315724.2003.10719273PMID 12569112S2CID 35700214.
  27. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p.161–2
  28. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, et al. (October 2013). “Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria’s folk medicine–an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs”Journal of Ethnopharmacology149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007PMC 3791396PMID 23770053.
  29. ^ “Dong quai (Angelica sinensis [Oliv.] Diels)”. Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  30. ^ Wichtl M (2004). Apii FructusHerbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8493-1961-7. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  31. ^ “Burdock”. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Archived from the original on 2011-10-29. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  32. ^ “Burdock (niu bang zi)”Herbs & Botanical. Naturopathy Digest. Archivedfrom the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2011-10-18.[unreliable source?]
  33. ^ Braga PC, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Bianchi T, Bordoni L, Marabini L (2006). “Anti-inflammatory activity of thymol: inhibitory effect on the release of human neutrophil elastase”. Pharmacology77 (3): 130–6. doi:10.1159/000093790PMID 16763380S2CID 23328433.
  34. ^ Widrig R, Suter A, Saller R, Melzer J (April 2007). “Choosing between NSAID and arnica for topical treatment of hand osteoarthritis in a randomised, double-blind study” (PDF). Rheumatology International27 (6): 585–91. doi:10.1007/s00296-007-0304-yPMID 17318618S2CID 21078244.
  35. Jump up to:a b “Arnica”drugs.comArchived from the original on 2017-01-08.
  36. ^ “Astragalus”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  37. ^ “Belladonna”National Institute of Health MedlinePlusArchived from the original on 2011-10-01. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  38. ^ Ganguli S (June 10, 2002). “Neem: A therapeutic for all seasons” (PDF). Current Science82 (11). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 5, 2011.
  39. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, et al. (October 2013). “Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria’s folk medicine–an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs”Journal of Ethnopharmacology149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007PMC 3791396PMID 23770053.
  40. ^ “Barberry”. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-20. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  41. ^ Gilani AH, Bashir S, Khan AU (December 2007). “Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology114 (3): 393–9. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.032PMID 17900837.
  42. ^ Gilani A.H. “Focused Conference Group: P16 – Natural products: Past and future? Pharmacological use of borago officinalis”, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology. Conference: 16th World Congress of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. WorldPharma 2010 Copenhagen Denmark. Publication: (var. pagings). 107 (pp 301), 2010. Date of Publication: July 2010.
  43. ^ “qsbgplant-db”QSBG DatabaseArchived from the original on 2017-02-02.
  44. ^ “Calendula: Herbal Remedies”. Discovery Fit & Health. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.[self-published source?]
  45. ^ “Your Guide to the Top 71 Medical Uses of Cannabis”Green Flower Media. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
  46. ^ Kremer R (2007). “Ancient Americans liked it hot – Smithsonian study traces Mexican cuisine roots to 1,500 years ago”The Analyst Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.
  47. ^ Tso Y, Love B, Ibañez RC, Ross J. “Capsicum spp”Medicinal Plants of the Southwest. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15.
  48. ^ Heinerman J (1999). The Health Benefits of Cayenne. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0879837037.
  49. ^ Visudhiphan S, Poolsuppasit S, Piboonnukarintr O, Tumliang S (June 1982). “The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition35 (6): 1452–8. doi:10.1093/ajcn/35.6.1452PMID 7081126{{inconsistent citations}}
  50. ^ Gurung S, Skalko-Basnet N (January 2009). “Wound healing properties of Carica papaya latex: in vivo evaluation in mice burn model”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology121 (2): 338–41. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.10.030PMID 19041705.
  51. ^ Francis JK. “Senna occidentalis (L.) Link” (PDF). International Institute of Tropical Forestry. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-11-22. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  52. ^ “Tropical Plant Database”. Raintree Nutrition. Archived from the original on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  53. ^ Johnson T (1999). CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-8493-1187-1.
  54. ^ Howard M (1987). Traditional Folk Remedies. Century.
  55. ^ “Vetiver”. WebMD. Archived from the original on 2015-04-25. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  56. ^ Remington JP, Wood HC, eds. (1918). “Cinchona”The Dispensatory of the United States of America.
  57. ^ “Bitter orange”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  58. ^ Imbesi A, de Pascuale A (2002). “Citrus species and their essential oils in traditional medicine”. In Giovanni Dugo, Angelo Di Giacomo (eds.). Citrus: the genus citrus. CRC Press. pp. 577ff. ISBN 978-0-415-28491-2.
  59. ^ Zhou HY, Shin EM, Guo LY, Zou LB, Xu GH, Lee SH, et al. (October 2007). “Anti-inflammatory activity of 21(alpha, beta)-methylmelianodiols, novel compounds from Poncirus trifoliata Rafinesque”. European Journal of Pharmacology572 (2–3): 239–48. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.07.005PMID 17662711.
  60. ^ “Abuta”. WebMD. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  61. ^ “Blessed thistle”National Institute of Health MedlinePlusArchived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  62. ^ “Hawthorn”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  63. ^ “Turmeric”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  64. ^ “Lady’s Slipper: Information on Uses, Doses, and Side Effects”. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  65. ^ Cichoke AJ (2001). Secrets of Native American herbal remedies: a comprehensive guide to the Native American tradition of using herbs and the mind/body/spirit connection for improving health and well-being. New York: Penguin Publisher. ISBN 9781101100257.
  66. ^ Gibson AC. “The Lifesaving Foxglove”Economic Botany Manual. Archived from the original on 2011-12-14.
  67. ^ Lip GY, Watson RD, Singh SP (December 1995). “ABC of atrial fibrillation. Drugs for atrial fibrillation”BMJ311 (7020): 1631–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.7020.1631PMC 2551512PMID 8555811.
  68. ^ Roxas M, Jurenka J (March 2007). “Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations”. Alternative Medicine Review12 (1): 25–48. PMID 17397266.
  69. ^ “Echinacea”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-07-05.
  70. ^ “Horsetail”Encyclopedia of Health. Archived from the original on 2013-02-08. Retrieved 2011-10-18.[unreliable source?][marketing material?]
  71. ^ Adams JD, Garcia C (June 2005). “Palliative Care Among Chumash People”Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine2 (2): 143–147. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh090PMC 1142202PMID 15937554.
  72. ^ Montalvo AM, Riordan EC, Beyers J (2017). “Plant profile for Eriodictyon crassifolium”Native Plant Recommendations for Southern California Ecoregions This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  73. ^ “The therapeutic value of coca in contemporary medicine”Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (2–3): 367–376. 1981-03-01. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(81)90064-7ISSN 0378-8741.
  74. ^ “Coca leaf: Myths and Reality”Transnational Institute. 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  75. ^ Rolland A, Fleurentin J, Lanhers MC, Younos C, Misslin R, Mortier F, Pelt JM (June 1991). “Behavioural effects of the American traditional plant Eschscholzia californica: sedative and anxiolytic properties”. Planta Medica57 (3): 212–6. doi:10.1055/s-2006-960076PMID 1680240.
  76. ^ “Eucalyptus”. Health Notes. Archived from the original on 2009-04-03. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  77. ^ “Eucalyptus spp”Medicinal Plants for LivestockCornell UniversityDepartment of Animal Science. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  78. ^ “Wahoo”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  79. ^ “Euphorbia hirta”Plants for a FutureArchived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  80. ^ Stuart M (1987). Encyclopedia Of Herbs & Herbalism. Crescent. ISBN 978-0-517-35326-4.
  81. ^ “DoH sees hope in ‘tawa-tawa’ as dengue cure”. Manila Bulletin. August 26, 2011.
  82. ^ Dr. A. B. Howard (2008). Herbal Extracts Build Better Health With Liquid Herb. The Blue Goose. p. 127.
  83. ^ “Açai”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchivedfrom the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  84. ^ “Asafoetida”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  85. ^ Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  86. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (century, 1987). pp 142-3.
  87. ^ Loy C, Schneider L (January 2006). “Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD001747. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001747.pub3PMID 16437436.
  88. ^ Foster S (2006), Desk Reference To Nature’s Medicine, Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, pp. 210–11, ISBN 978-0-7922-3666-5
  89. ^ Milliken W, Bridgewater S (2004). Flora Celtica. Edinburgh, U.K.: Birlinn Ltd. p. 221. ISBN 978-1841583037.
  90. ^ “Ginkgo”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-29. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  91. ^ A Healing Heritage, June 12, 2007, Joanna Poncavage, The Morning Call (Allentown, Pa.)
  92. ^ Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD (2002). Herbal Medicines (2nd ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press.
  93. ^ “Licorice root”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-22. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  94. ^ Sánchez-Tena S, Fernández-Cachón ML, Carreras A, Mateos-Martín ML, Costoya N, Moyer MP, et al. (January 2012). “Hamamelitannin from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) displays specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells”. Journal of Natural Products75 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1021/np200426kPMID 22216935.
  95. ^ Guliyev VB, Gul M, Yildirim A (December 2004). “Hippophae rhamnoides L.: chromatographic methods to determine chemical composition, use in traditional medicine and pharmacological effects”. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences812 (1–2): 291–307. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.08.047PMID 15556505.
  96. ^ “Hoodia”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  97. ^ “Goldenseal”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-25. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  98. ^ Gaster B, Holroyd J (January 2000). “St John’s wort for depression: a systematic review”Archives of Internal Medicine160 (2): 152–6. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.2.152PMID 10647752.
  99. ^ Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (April 2002). “Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial”JAMA287 (14): 1807–14. doi:10.1001/jama.287.14.1807PMID 11939866.
  100. ^ “St. John’s wort”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-02-06. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  101. ^ “Hyssop: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning”webmd.com. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  102. ^ Gambero A, Ribeiro ML (January 2015). “The positive effects of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) in obesity”Nutrients7 (2): 730–50. doi:10.3390/nu7020730PMC 4344557PMID 25621503.
  103. ^ Wichtl M, ed. (2004). Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Medpharm. ISBN 978-0849319617.
  104. ^ Tenorio Sanz MD, Torija Isasa ME (September 1991). “[Mineral elements in mate herb (Ilex paraguariensis St. H.)]”. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion41 (3): 441–54. PMID 1824521.
  105. ^ Klein S, Rister R (1998). The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. The American Botanical Council. ISBN 978-0965555500.
  106. ^ Valduga E, de Freitas RJ, Reissmann CB, Nakashima T (1997). “Caracterização química da folha de Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate) e de outras espécies utilizadas na adulteração do mate”Boletim do Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de Alimentos (in Portuguese). 15 (1): 25–36. doi:10.5380/cep.v15i1.14033.
  107. ^ Wang GW, Hu WT, Huang BK, Qin LP (June 2011). “Illicium verum: a review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology136 (1): 10–20. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.051PMID 21549817.
  108. ^ Bartram T (1998). Bartram’s Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. London: Robinson Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1854875860.
  109. ^ Rapini RP, Bolognia JL, Joseph L J (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 2049. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.
  110. ^ “Naturalmedicinalherbs website”Archived from the original on 2016-11-07.
  111. ^ O’Mathúna D, Larimore W (2001). Alternative Medicine: The Christian Handbook. Zondervan. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-310-23584-2.
  112. ^ “Chaparral”Herbs, Vitamins, and MineralsArchived from the original on 2011-10-02.
  113. ^ Nayak, et al. (2006).
  114. ^ Encyclopedia of Herbs. “Bay Laurel: Laurus nobilis”. AllNatural.net. Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  115. ^ “Lavender”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-01-18. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  116. ^ Ali BH, Bashir AK, Tanira MO (December 1995). “Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) in rats”. Pharmacology51(6): 356–63. doi:10.1159/000139347PMID 8966192.
  117. ^ “Flaxseed”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  118. ^ Shen JL, Man KM, Huang PH, Chen WC, Chen DC, Cheng YW, et al. (September 2010). “Honokiol and magnolol as multifunctional antioxidative molecules for dermatologic disorders”Molecules15 (9): 6452–65. doi:10.3390/molecules15096452PMC 6257695PMID 20877235.
  119. ^ International Medical and Surgical Survey: Obstetrics and pediatrics. American Institute of Medicine. 1921. p. 143. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  120. ^ “Chamomile”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-29. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  121. ^ “Alfalfa”National Institute of Health MedlinePlusArchived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  122. ^ “Tea tree oil”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-24. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  123. ^ “Monograph: Lemon Balm”. Health Canada. 17 March 2008. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  124. ^ “Peppermint Oil”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  125. ^ “Herbal”HerbalArchived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 9 June2016.
  126. ^ Baldwa VS, Bhandari CM, Pangaria A, Goyal RK (1977). “Clinical trial in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant source”. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences82 (1): 39–41. doi:10.3109/03009737709179057PMID 20078273S2CID 30290013.
  127. ^ “Noni”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchivedfrom the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  128. ^ “Watercress”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  129. ^ “Sacred Lotus”. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18.
  130. ^ Ali BH, Blunden G (April 2003). “Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa”. Phytotherapy Research17 (4): 299–305. doi:10.1002/ptr.1309PMID 12722128S2CID 12461782.
  131. ^ Sahebkar A, Soranna D, Liu X, Thomopoulos C, Simental-Mendia LE, Derosa G, et al. (November 2016). “A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of supplementation with Nigella sativa (black seed) on blood pressure”Journal of Hypertension34 (11): 2127–35. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000001049PMID 27512971S2CID 3226588.
  132. ^ NIIR Board, National Institute of Industrial Research (India) (2004). Compendium of Medicinal Plants. 2004. National Institute of Industrial Research. p. 320. ISBN 978-81-86623-80-0.
  133. ^ “Evening primrose oil”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-23. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  134. ^ O’Mathúna D, Larimore W (2001). Alternative Medicine: The Christian Handbook. Zondervan. pp. 371–372. ISBN 978-0-310-23584-2.
  135. ^ Kamin W, Maydannik V, Malek FA, Kieser M (March 2010). “Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in children and adolescents with acute bronchitis – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots”. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics48 (3): 184–91. doi:10.5414/cpp48184PMID 20197012.
  136. ^ “Kava”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchivedfrom the original on 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  137. ^ “Jamaica dogwood”. WebMD. Archived from the original on 2015-09-12. Retrieved 2013-08-26.
  138. ^ Costello CH, Butler CL (March 1948). “An investigation of Piscidia erythrina (Jamaica dogwood)”. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. American Pharmaceutical Association37 (3): 89–97. doi:10.1002/jps.3030370302PMID 18905805.
  139. ^ Val plantes herbal ice tea Archived 2009-07-25 at the Wayback Machine
  140. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, et al. (October 2013). “Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria’s folk medicine–an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs”Journal of Ethnopharmacology149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007PMC 3791396PMID 23770053.
  141. ^ Nyakudya E, Jeong JH, Lee NK, Jeong YS (June 2014). “Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits”Preventive Nutrition and Food Science19 (2): 59–68. doi:10.3746/pnf.2014.19.2.059PMC 4103729PMID 25054103.
  142. ^ “Abscess Root”. WebMD. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  143. ^ “Guava”. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  144. ^ Hawrelak J (2003). “Medicinal herb monograph: Guava”. J Aust Tradit-Med Soc(9): 25–29.
  145. ^ “Wafer Ash”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  146. ^ Ferrari A, Diehl C (January 2012). “Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerance of a topical gel with 4% quassia extract in the treatment of rosacea”. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology52 (1): 84–8. doi:10.1177/0091270010391533PMID 21343346S2CID 29876609.
  147. ^ “Mureer”. Qatar e-Nature. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  148. ^ “Fruit teas Rose (Rosa vosagiaca, rosa majalis, rosa canina, rosa rugosa etc.)”. Gurmans. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  149. ^ Lans C.A., Ethnomedicine as used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus; J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 200
  150. ^ Lust, John B.. The herb book. New York: B. Lust Publications, 1974.
  151. ^ “Rumex Crispus”abchomeopathy.comArchived from the original on 2014-03-06.
  152. ^ Mahdi JG, Mahdi AJ, Mahdi AJ, Bowen ID (April 2006). “The historical analysis of aspirin discovery, its relation to the willow tree and antiproliferative and anticancer potential”Cell Proliferation39 (2): 147–55. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00377.xPMC 6496865PMID 16542349S2CID 16515437.
  153. ^ Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi AH, Khani M (February 2003). “Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial”. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics28 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.xPMID 12605619S2CID 8326758.
  154. ^ “Sage”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchivedfrom the original on 2015-05-27.
  155. ^ “European Elderberry”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  156. ^ Misra BB, Dey S (2013). “Biological Activities of East Indian Sandalwood Tree, Santalum album”PeerJ PrePrints1: e96. doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.96v1.
  157. ^ “Herbs – Ashoka”. Tamilnadu.com. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  158. ^ Güllüce M, Sökmen M, Daferera D, Ağar G, Ozkan H, Kartal N, et al. (July 2003). “In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry51 (14): 3958–65. doi:10.1021/jf0340308PMID 12822930S2CID 10608519.
  159. ^ Sahin F, Karaman I, Güllüce M, Oğütçü H, Sengül M, Adigüzel A, et al. (July 2003). “Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Satureja hortensis L”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology87 (1): 61–5. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00110-7PMID 12787955.
  160. ^ Mihajilov-Krstev T, Radnović D, Kitić D, Zlatković B, Ristić M, Branković S (2009). “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil”Central European Journal of Biology4 (3): 411–416. doi:10.2478/s11535-009-0027-z.
  161. ^ Chandrasekaran M., Senthilkumar A., Venkatesalu V “Antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of fatty acid methyl esters from the leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. “. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 15 (7) (pp 775-780), 2011.
  162. ^ “Milk Thistle”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  163. ^ Froelich S, Gupta MP, Siems K, Jenett-Siems K (2008). “Phenylethanoid glycosides from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl, Verbenaceae, a traditional antimalarial medicinal plant”Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia18(4): 517–20. doi:10.1590/s0102-695×2008000400003.
  164. ^ Adebajo AC, Olawode EO, Omobuwajo OR, Adesanya SA, Begrow F, Elkhawad A, et al. (March 2007). “Hypoglycaemic constituents of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaf”. Planta Medica73 (3): 241–50. doi:10.1055/s-2007-967125PMID 17318784.
  165. ^ Schapoval EE, Vargas MR, Chaves CG, Bridi R, Zuanazzi JA, Henriques AT (February 1998). “Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology60 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(97)00136-0PMID 9533432.
  166. ^ Hensel W (2008). Medicinal plants of Britain and Europe. London: A&C Black. ISBN 9781408101544.
  167. ^ Wiest R. “Chickweed”hartonweb.com. Good Health Herbs. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 15 Dec 2015.
  168. ^ Singh B, Sahu PM, Sharma MK (May 2002). “Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of triterpenoids from Strobilanthes callosus Nees. (Short Communication)]” – via The Free Library.
  169. ^ Agarwal R., Rangari V. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of lupeol and 19α-H lupeol isolated from Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala roots. Ind. J. Pharm. 2003;35:384–387. Pdf: “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-11. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
  170. ^ Teynor TM, Putnam DH, Doll JD, Kelling, Oelke EA, Undersander DJ, Oplinger ES (1997). “Comfrey”Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Wisconsin Extension, University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 2011-11-10. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  171. ^ Tice R (October 2007). “Comfrey and One of Its Constituent Alkaloids Symphytine, Review of Toxicological Literature” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  172. ^ “Clove”National Institute of Health MedlinePlusArchived from the original on 2016-07-05.
  173. ^ “Feverfew”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  174. ^ “Dandelion”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-05-27.
  175. ^ “Water Germander”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  176. ^ Sifton, David W., ed. (2000). The PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing Therapies. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 535. ISBN 978-0-345-43377-0.
  177. ^ Grieve M. “Lime Tree”. Botanical.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-04.
  178. ^ “Wandering Jew / Spiderwort”Project NoahArchived from the original on 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  179. ^ Eckman K, Hines DA (1993). “Trema orientalis”Indigenous multipurpose trees of Tanzania: uses and economic benefits for peopleFAO Forestry Department. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
  180. ^ “Red clover”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-05-27.
  181. ^ “Fenugreek”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-30. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  182. ^ “Wheatgrass”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  183. ^ “Cat’s claw”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  184. ^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, et al. (October 2013). “Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria’s folk medicine–an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs”Journal of Ethnopharmacology149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007PMC 3791396PMID 23770053.
  185. ^ Prior RL, Cao G, Martin A, Sofic E, McEwen J, O’Brien C, et al. (1998). “Antioxidant Capacity As Influenced by Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content, Maturity, and Variety of Vaccinium Species”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry46 (7): 2686–93. doi:10.1021/jf980145d.
  186. ^ Smith MA, Marley KA, Seigler D, Singletary KW, Meline B (2000). “Bioactive Properties of Wild Blueberry Fruits”. Journal of Food Science65 (2): 352–356. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb16006.x.
  187. ^ Howell AB, Vorsa N, Der Marderosian A, Foo LY (October 1998). “Inhibition of the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial-cell surfaces by proanthocyanidin extracts from cranberries”. The New England Journal of Medicine339 (15): 1085–6. doi:10.1056/NEJM199810083391516PMID 9767006.
  188. ^ “Cranberry”National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved 2011-09-30.[permanent dead link]
  189. ^ “Bilberry”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  190. ^ “Valerian”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  191. ^ Turker AU, Camper ND (October 2002). “Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology82 (2–3): 117–25. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00186-1PMID 12241986.
  192. ^ “Verbena”. WebMD. Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  193. ^ Wynn SG, Fougère B (2007). “Zoopharmacognosy”. Veterinary herbal medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-02998-8.
  194. ^ Huffman MA, Seifu M (1989). “Observations on the illness and consumption of a possibly medicinal plant Vernonia amygdalina (Del.), by a wild chimpanzee in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania”. Primates30: 51–63. doi:10.1007/BF02381210S2CID 12090279.
  195. ^ “Veronica”. WebMD. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  196. ^ Lamberto T (1995). “Iridoid glucosides from Viburnum tinus”. Phytochemistry38(2): 423–425. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(94)00618-4.
  197. Jump up to:a b Tang J, Wang CK, Pan X, Yan H, Zeng G, Xu W, et al. (August 2010). “Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor”. Peptides31 (8): 1434–40. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.05.004PMID 20580652S2CID 33157266.
  198. ^ Svangård E, Göransson U, Hocaoglu Z, Gullbo J, Larsson R, Claeson P, Bohlin L (February 2004). “Cytotoxic cyclotides from Viola tricolor”. Journal of Natural Products67 (2): 144–7. doi:10.1021/np030101lPMID 14987049.
  199. ^ “Mistletoe”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  200. ^ “Chasteberry”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  201. ^ “Grape seed”National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthArchived from the original on 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
  202. ^ Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazón J (July 2009). “Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine”Molecules14 (7): 2373–93. doi:10.3390/molecules14072373PMC 6255378PMID 19633611.
  203. ^ “Xanthoparmelia”WebMDArchived from the original on 2015-04-25.
  204. ^ “Naturalmedicinalherbs website”Archived from the original on 2017-10-26.
  205. ^ Giacosa A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, Riva A, Bianchi Porro G, Rondanelli M (April 2015). “Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?”. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences19 (7): 1291–6. PMID 25912592.
  206. ^ Nikkhah Bodagh M, Maleki I, Hekmatdoost A (January 2019). “Ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: A systematic review of clinical trials”Food Science & Nutrition7 (1): 96–108. doi:10.1002/fsn3.807PMC 6341159PMID 30680163.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  •  The dictionary definition of herbalism at Wiktionary
  •  Media related to Herbalism at Wikimedia Commons
showvteMedicinal herbs and fungi
showvteNatural resources


Navigation menu





In other projects


Edit links

%d bloggers like this: